Hydraulic Pump Working Principles: Ultimate Guide

Hydraulic pump working principle is based on the principle of displacement pumps. A hydraulic pump is a primary part of a hydraulic system that transforms the mechanical energy from an engine or motor into hydraulic energy. The hydraulic pump consists of pressure and flow to perform useful work.

A pump flow is a function of speed and displacement (volume). A larger pump can transfer more fluid at once or push on more fluid by spinning a pump faster. Power in hydraulics is a mixture of pressure and flow. By doubling pressure while the flow is the same, the horsepower doubles. On the other hand, by doubling the flow while applying the same pressure, the horsepower is also doubled.

Hydraulic Pumps Basics
A hydraulic pump is a mechanical machine that converts mechanical power from an external source into hydraulic energy in the form of a combination of flow and pressure. It produces flow with enough power to overcome the load pressure at the pump outlet.

When the hydraulic pump is running, it generates a vacuum at the inlet of the pump, which pushes liquid from the reservoir into the inlet line. The liquid is then delivered to the pump outlet by mechanical action, and finally, it is directed into the hydraulic system.

Read more: Hydraulic Pump Working Principles: Ultimate Guide

John Deere unveils its new G-tier compact wheel loaders

John Deere is building upon its lineup of compact equipment by expanding its performance tiering strategy with three G-tier compact wheel loader models.

The new G-tier models, including the new 184 G-tier, and the 204 G-tier and 304 G-tier machines, were designed to include proven capabilities and are ideal for customers in need of a dependable machine to complete everyday tasks.

The G-tier compact wheel loader models are also practically equipped, providing proven capabilities with the reliability and ruggedness customers expect from John Deere machines.

“As we learned from launching our performance tiering strategy on our utility loader line-up last year, customer’s needs are unique and they require personalized solutions to meet their diverse set of tasks,” said Luke Gribble, Solutions Marketing Manager, John Deere Construction and Forestry Division. “That’s why we chose to expand our performance tiering strategy with the introduction of the G-tier compact wheel loader models. These machines are not only rugged, but they boast simple and intuitive machine controls that are a great fit for operators of all experience levels, while also offering options that promote operator comfort and productivity.”

The 184, 204, and 304 G-tier compact wheel loaders provide solutions for customers in applications such as landscaping, agriculture, snow removal, site development, and rental. Also, they offer optimal performance with lower maintenance costs.

With convenience and productivity top of mind, these models come standard with limited slip differential, which automatically engages if one wheel loses traction, providing enhanced safety for the operator and the machine.

The optional ride-control reduces spillage from the bucket when traveling over rough terrain, reducing job site clean-up, and improving ride quality for the operator and can also be set to engage and disengage at certain speeds.

Featured on all G-tier models, the forward-thinking cab design is offered in both a canopy or enclosed cab configuration, giving operators flexibility when working in a variety of different geographies. Built with operator visibility in mind, the redesigned enclosed cab features a frameless, fully glass door, floor-to-ceiling front windshield and remounted machine display, providing a clear line of sight to machine surroundings. The right-side full glass window also swings out 180 degrees to further enhance overall visibility for the operator.

Additional features include an adjustable steering column, slip-resistant steps, and an optional LED lighting package. The spacious cab includes amenities such as improved air conditioning systems and ergonomic low-effort controls* to keep operators comfortable during a long shift.

All G-tier models offer enhanced serviceability features such as ground-level service and increased capacity fuel tanks to help simplify daily maintenance, keeping machines up and running on the job. This allows operators to spend more time completing the tasks at hand, rather than performing on-site repairs or maintenance. The strategically placed cooling package minimizes contamination from debris build-up, optimizing efficiency and reducing cleanout time compared to the L Series model.

Read more: John Deere unveils its new G-tier compact wheel loaders

Bobcat introduces its most compact telehandler yet

Bobcat has announced its all-new TL519 telehandler, the most compact telehandler in its current lineup.

At just 6-feet (1.8-metres) wide, the TL519 is designed to bring powerful performance and enhanced maneuverability to jobsites big and small.

Ideal for construction, agriculture and rental tasks, the TL519 outperforms in lift height compared to competitive machines in its class size. It features a 74-hp engine, a 2-speed hydrostatic transmission and a standard Power Bob-Tach mounting system so operators can easily swap attachments without leaving the cab.

“The TL519 delivers the power, extended reach and maneuverability that customers need to tackle big jobs on confined jobsites,” said Drew Kolo, marketing manager at Bobcat. “Its ease of use and attachment versatility also make it the go-to machine for a wide range of applications.”

The TL519 has a lift capacity of 5,500 lbs (2,495 kg) and a lift height of more than 19 ft (5.8 m). Also, it comes equipped with four steering modes and five operation modes for more versatility.

The advanced Tier 4, turbo-charged engine delivers powerful, high-torque performance, excellent efficiency and achieves emissions compliance without the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) or selective catalyst reduction (SCR).

Also, according to Bobcat, operators will appreciate the new engine’s reliable cold weather starting and a variety of features that make maintenance and service more convenient.

Five operation modes give operators the versatility needed for a wide variety of applications:

  • ECO mode allows the operator to maintain hydraulic performance without using the engine’s full power—working with lower rpm, less noise and lower fuel consumption
  • Smooth Drive mode is ideal for maneuvering across jobsites with mild acceleration and deceleration while carrying loads
  • Dynamic Drive mode increases responsiveness of the telehandler’s acceleration and deceleration for traveling between tasks
  • Flex Drive mode allows the operator to manage the engine speed independently from travel speed
  • Advanced Attachment Control mode allows for full auxiliary hydraulic performance

Read more: Bobcat introduces its most compact telehandler yet

How Hydraulic Cranes Work

Most hydraulic machines use some sort of incompressible fluid, a fluid that is at its maximum density. Oil is the most commonly used incompressible fluid for hydraulic machines, including hydraulic cranes. In a simple hydraulic system, when a piston pushes down on the oil, the oil transmits all of the original force to another piston, which is driven up.

In a simple hydraulic system, when one piston is pushed down, another piston is pushed up. Click on the arrow for a demo.

A hydraulic pump creates the pressure that moves the pistons. Pressure in a hydraulic system is created by one of two types of hydraulic pumps:

Variable-displacement pump – Click here to learn more about variable-displacement pumps.
Gear pump
Most hydraulic truck cranes use two-gear pumps that have a pair of inter-meshing gears to pressurize the hydraulic oil. When pressure needs to increase, the operator pushes the foot throttle to run the pump faster. In a gear pump, the only way to get high pressure is to run the engine at full power.

A 70-ton hydraulic truck crane uses a 12.7-L diesel engine that generates up to 365 horsepower. The engine is connected to three two-gear pumps, including:

Main pump – This pump operates the piston rod that raises and lowers the boom, as well as the hydraulic telescoping sections that extend the boom. The main pump is able to generate 3,500 pounds per square inch (psi) of pressure. It generates more pressure than the other two pumps because it is responsible for moving much more weight.
Pilot pressure counterweight pump – A hydraulic truck crane uses counterweights on the back of the cab to keep it from tipping over. These are added and removed by a hydraulic lift that has its own pump. The counterweight gear pump can generate 1,400 psi.
Steering/outrigger pump – One pump controls the steering and the outriggers. The outriggers are used to stabilize the truck during lifting operations. Because steering and outrigger operation are not performed simultaneously, they run off of the same pump. This pump generates 1,600 psi.

Read more: How Hydraulic Cranes Work

NRW equips Karara magnetite mining fleet with two new Cat 6060 shovels

NRW Civil & Mining has recently invested in two new Cat 6060 hydraulic mining shovels to meet some unique challenges at Karara Mining’s magnetite project in Western Australia’s Midwest region, engaging Cat dealer WesTrac in the process.

Karara is the largest mining operation and the first major magnetite mine in the Midwest region, producing a premium, high-grade concentrate product which is exported from Geraldton port.
Unlike the more commonly mined hematite, magnetite is a hard and highly abrasive ore, which meant NRW needed machines that could cope with the rigours of operating in such harsh conditions.

NRW opted for the Cat 6060 Hydraulic Mining Shovel, a 600-t unit able to load 218 t trucks and above.

According to NRW Mining Operations Manager, Adam Harper, the buying decisions for a mining contractor are very much driven by client expectations.

“We’re obviously chasing safe machines, but they have to be able to perform to our clients’ expectations and do so efficiently,” Harper said.

According to WesTrac Product Manager, Greg Wear, the Cat 6060 is a premium Caterpillar® offering when it comes to hydraulic mining shovels and has traditionally been the shovel of choice for top tier miners.

“This is the machine that we promote for highly productive loading of 240 ton (218 t) trucks and up,” Wear said. “Tier One miners have had good success with that and, now with NRW onboard, it shows that mining contractors are also seeing the value of the Cat 6060.”

Wear explains that the 600-t models have a long history, having first been released to market under previous owner Terex as the RH340 in 2004. Since being acquired by Caterpillar, the machine has been progressively “Catified” through a series of phased improvements.

“Over the past 10 years, Caterpillar has made phased improvements,” he said. “Phase one was a lot of quick wins that could be applied to make the machine more reliable. Phase two looked at structural changes designed to provide stronger, heavier frames and more reliability. Phase three continued that with modifications around sticks and booms, and a completely new superstructure and larger slew ring.

“Today with all the next generation technology, the transformation is complete with all Cat electronics and parts, and there’s been a new cab installed. Now the 6060 has the complete Caterpillar feel and functionality.”

Read more: NRW equips Karara magnetite mining fleet with two new Cat 6060 shovels

Caterpillar introduce new 350 excavator

WEIGHING 47.7 tonnes and featuring powerful digging force and strong swing torque, the new fixed-gauge Cat 350 excavator can be equipped with large buckets up to 3.2 cubic metres (4.2 cubic yards) for class-leading productivity, yet consumes up to 13% less fuel than the Cat 349, to lower costs, reduce CO2 emissions, and operate more sustainably.

Moreover, three power mode options – Smart, Power, and Eco – match the excavator to the task at hand to further reduce fuel consumption.

‘We are committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions while helping our customers meet their climate-related objectives,’ commented Brian Abbott, Caterpillar’s global product manager for large hydraulic excavators. ‘The 350 is our latest example of delivering on that commitment.’

Cat Payload onboard weighing gives real-time weight estimates to achieve precise load targets and improve efficiency. When combined with VisionLink, Payload offers remote managing of production targets. Alternatively, the monitor’s USB port allows fleet managers to download up to 30 days of work for progress management without an Internet connection or VisionLink subscription.

For truck loading applications, Swing Assist automatically stops excavator swing at operator-defined setpoints to consume less fuel. Lift Assist helps to avoid machine tipping by letting the operator know the load is within safe working range limits. To safely work around obstructions, 2D E-Fence prevents the excavator from moving outside of operator-defined set points.

The 308kW (413hp) Cat C9.3B engine has more than 14 million hours of service to attest to its long-term reliability. Synchronized 1,000h oil and fuel filter service intervals reduce downtime, whilst the hydraulic oil filter offers a 3,000h replacement interval – an increase of 50% over the previous design – and provides improved filtration performance.

The 350 features standard high-ambient temperature capability of 52C and cold-start capability at –18C, with optional cold-start capability at –32C. Automatic hydraulic warm-up in cold temperatures gets the machine to work faster and prolongs the life of machine components. A double-element air intake filter with pre-cleaner features high dust capacity, and the machine’s high-efficiency hydraulic fan offers an optional automatic reverse function to keep cores free from debris.

Product Link collects data automatically and gives fleet managers critical operating information such as location, hours, fuel usage, idle time, maintenance alerts, diagnostic codes, and machine health online through web and mobile applications. Maximizing machine uptime, remote troubleshoot and remote flash allow dealers to remotely connect with the machine to diagnose fault codes and update operating software. Operators can easily track filter life and maintenance intervals through the touchscreen monitor.

The new 350 features easy keyless starting via a push-button, Operator ID passcode, or Bluetooth key fob. Operators can programme each joystick button to preference – including power mode, response, and pattern – using the unique Operator ID, and the machine will recall individual preferences. Its large, high-resolution touchscreen monitor with jog dial offers quick navigation through machine controls and provides quick access to the machine’s digital operator’s manual.

Read more: Caterpillar introduce new 350 excavator

Working Principles of Hydraulic Pump

Working Principles of Hydraulic Pump – The functioning concept of hydraulic pumps is similar to that of displacement pumps. A hydraulic pump is a key component of a hydraulic system because it converts mechanical energy from an engine or motor to hydraulic energy. To conduct beneficial work, the hydraulic pump comprises pressure and flow.

The flow of a pump is determined by its speed and displacement (volume). By rotating a pump faster, a bigger pump may transfer more fluid at once or push on more fluid. In hydraulics, power is a combination of pressure and flow. The horsepower is doubled by doubling the pressure while keeping the flow the same. On the other side, doubling the flow while maintaining the same pressure doubles the horsepower.

What is a Hydraulic Pump
The core of a hydraulic system is a hydraulic pump, which is a mechanical source of power that transfers mechanical energy into hydraulic energy (i.e. flow, pressure). In other words, it produces enough flow to counteract the pressure generated by the load at the pump output. Hydraulic power is pressure times flow, whereas mechanical rotational power is the combination of torque and speed.

When a hydraulic pump is turned on, it causes a vacuum at the pump inlet, which draws liquid from the reservoir into the pump’s intake line, where it is supplied to the pump output and pushed into the hydraulic system by mechanical action.

Read more: Working Principles of Hydraulic Pump

Komatsu’s first electric mid-size hydraulic excavator packs a Proterra battery

US battery maker Proterra and multinational Komatsu partnered in January 2021 to develop electric mid-sized hydraulic excavators, and today they announced that Komatsu’s first 20-ton class lithium-ion battery electric machine is ready for debut.

Komatsu will officially launch the electric excavator next week at bauma2022, a construction equipment trade fair in Munich. It will be introduced to Japanese and European markets in 2023.

Mid-size hydraulic excavators are versatile machines that are mainly used for earth excavation and loading operations.

Komatsu’s new electric 20-ton machine features a power output of 123 kw and 451 kWh of battery capacity.

(Contrast that with Caterpillar announcing in January 2019 that it was building the “world’s largest” excavator: a 26-ton machine with a 300 kWh battery pack.)

The new electric excavator’s Proterra battery system, when fully charged, enabled operation of five to nine hours in the proof-of-concept tests conducted on advance research machines at customers’ construction sites. Komatsu’s components on the machine include the hydraulic pump, controller, and electric motor for work equipment operation.

The added advantage of electrifying construction equipment is that it can be used for work in urban areas and during nighttime construction work without creating noise pollution or emissions. Komatsu also notes that “the zero engine vibration will also help reduce operator fatigue.”

In addition to making batteries, Burlingame, California-based Proterra also manufactures electric buses and drive trains and chargers for heavy-duty commercial vehicles.

Proterra is going to get some competition from Tesla, which announced on October 6 that its Tesla Semi has gone into production and that Pepsi is going to get the first electric trucks starting December 1.

The Motley Fool reported on October 14 that “Proterra shipped battery systems for 348 vehicles in the third quarter, a jump of more than 1,000% compared to the year-ago quarter.”

Read more: Komatsu’s first electric mid-size hydraulic excavator packs a Proterra battery

Hydraulic systems redesigned to boost efficiency of heavy commercial vehicles

Most of the energy that heavy commercial vehicles use is not consumed moving around sites but rather in lifting, carrying or digging. The hydraulic equipment used to perform these functions can often be old-fashioned and inefficient.

In 2018, the Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC) awarded a £10.9m grant to the DDisplace project, to address these challenges by redesigning hydraulic systems. It is led by Edinburgh-based technology developer Artemis Intelligent Power, working in collaboration with Danish-American multinational Danfoss Power Solutions and hydraulic system specialist Robbie Fluid Engineering.

Alasdair Robertson, marketing director at Danfoss Power Solutions, said: “Hydraulic systems in a machine like an excavator have been shown to waste up to 70% of the energy that goes into them as heat. This inefficiency is a barrier to widespread electrification of off-highway machines and needs to be tackled urgently as part of the global road to net zero.”

Radial design
The DDisplace concept uses a radial configuration on its DDP096 Digital Displacement pump rather than a mechanically governed axial pump, with its pistons actuated by computer-controlled valves.

“By replacing a conventional pump with a DD one you can expect to save 10-20% of the input energy,” said Robertson: “For more complex implementations where we start to use the ability of the DD pump to have multiple independent outputs we will leverage that to develop more advanced system architectures.”

Robertson believes that, once the technology is fully developed, it could improve system efficiency by up to 50%, considerably reducing emissions and energy consumption. Furthermore, it could play a key role in the electrification of heavy commercial vehicles. Danfoss has also developed an electric powertrain as part of a second APC-backed project, and the company estimates that the two technologies combined could reduce the lifetime CO2 emissions of the global excavator fleet by 80 megatonnes by 2030.

Read more: Hydraulic systems redesigned to boost efficiency of heavy commercial vehicles

Hydraulic Excavator Market Size-Share 2030 Analysis By Growing Demands, Key Players

According to the latest report Hydraulic Excavator Market published by Extrapolate, The hydraulic excavator market was valued at USD 10.04 Billion in 2021. The market is projected to grow USD 21.43 Billion in 2030, at a CAGR of 4.3%. The significance of technological advancements and strategic initiatives for industry growth is highlighted by this study. The analysis focuses on a variety of factors, including opportunities, drivers, and restraints, for both leading market participants and important stakeholders.

Furthermore, the study gives a detailed overview of the market size for Hydraulic Excavator, taking into account sales, revenue, demand, product innovation, and production capacity. Additionally, it offers a thorough study of supply chains and company execution across regional markets.

The competitive environment, which includes the major players’ market rankings, as well as the recent collaborations, service/product launches, business expansions, and acquisitions of the companies profiled, has been thoroughly explored. For the major market players, detailed company profiles with business overviews, company insights, product benchmarking, and SWOT analyses have been provided in this study report.

Read more: Hydraulic Excavator Market Size-Share 2030 Analysis By Growing Demands, Key Players


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