Going Beyond PID in Hydraulic Motion Control

Early on, systems relied on basic start/stop and limit switches, but as processing power and speed have increased, electronic industrial system controls have grown to be the more sophisticated option and become ever more capable.

In the nearly 40 years since electronic control systems first became common features of industrial machines, controls theory has necessarily evolved to keep pace with machine design. Early on, systems relied on basic start/stop and limit switches, with perhaps the added sophistication of two-speed valves. It then became possible to coordinate various parts of the system’s action, with sensors indicating various states; early microprocessors kept track of those states and issued command signals based on programmed instruction sets. As processing power and speed have increased, electronic industrial system controls are growing ever more sophisticated and becoming ever more capable.

Why Energy Transmission Makes a Difference
Electromechanical systems transmit energy to the load with solid material parts like shafts and gears. Therefore, these systems feature near instantaneous on/off capabilities, and controls are essentially unaffected by environmental or system changes, such as temperature. From a controls standpoint, these systems are stiff and linear, meaning control algorithms can be simpler. However, electromechanical systems are challenged by shock or dynamic loading, and experience mechanical wear, resulting in a finite working life before refurbishment or replacement.

Fluid power systems have tremendous power density and are significantly more tolerant of shock loading. That is due to the use of hydraulic fluid as an energy transmission media. When the system is shocked, the hydraulic fluid exhibits compressibility effects and will also transmit forces to the pipes, hoses, and tanks that contain the oil in fluid power systems. Shock distribution does not typically result in permanent damage to a hydraulic system, and the system can continue to operate normally after long periods of shock loading events. As a side note, hydraulic fluid characteristics will exhibit slightly different behaviors depending on changing environmental conditions such as temperature.

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Why Your Hydraulic Machine Probably Needs an Oil Cooler—and a Big One!

The inconvenient truth about hydraulic machines is they are heat-generating systems. They are not unique in this respect: Energy conversion and control with 100% efficiency remains elusive. But it’s my contention that unavoidable inefficiency, which manifests as energy contamination of the hydraulic fluid, does not command the attention it deserves.

With the exception of the reservoir, every component in a hydraulic system is a heat-generating device. The process of moving hydraulic fluid through a conductor from A to B results in pressure drop and, therefore, heat generation. Installing depth filters to control particle contamination also creates a pressure drop, which increases heat load. Pumps and motors leak internally, resulting still more heat-generating pressure drops. The charge pump on a hydrostatic transmission is 100% heat load. In open circuits, heat-generating orifices, throttles (in all their various forms), and hydrostats are installed to control direction, flow, and pressure—and loads are counterbalanced by installing hydraulic resistance.

The point is that energy wasting-pressure drops are a fact of life in hydraulic systems. They can (and should) be minimized, but they can’t be completely eliminated. So let’s stop ignoring the elephant in the room. Because if left unchecked, energy contamination is just as problematic as particle contamination, and arguably more so.

Energy Contamination Affects Lubrication
Adequate lubrication of hydraulic components and efficient power transmission both depend on appropriate oil viscosity. If hydraulic fluid temperature is allowed to exceed that required to maintain viscosity at around 20 centiStokes (cSt), the likelihood of boundary lubrication—resulting in friction and wear—increases dramatically.

The temperature at which this point is reached depends on the fluid’s viscosity grade and its viscosity index (VI). The VI is a measure of an oil’s resistance to change in viscosity with a change in temperature. An oil with a high VI is often called a multi-grade oil. Multi-grade oils are often specified for equipment that must operate in cold. The high VI helps prevent the oil’s viscosity from increasing (thickening) at low temperatures. However, a high VI also helps prevent its viscosity from decreasing (thinning) at high temperatures.

Read more: Why Your Hydraulic Machine Probably Needs an Oil Cooler—and a Big One!

Anglo Quellaveco to operate Cat fleet teaming 794AC trucks with both rope & hydraulic shovels

By the time Anglo American produces its first copper from the Quellaveco mine in Peru, the company will have owned the orebody for nearly 30 years, spent more than 15 years laying the groundwork, invested millions of dollars, and made thousands of decisions necessary to get the mine up and running. Company leaders believe that this attention to detail and commitment to preparation will allow the mine not only to succeed but to exceed expectations. In fact, before the first copper ore is extracted from the mine, the company is already thinking ahead.

“We see significant potential to expand Quellaveco beyond its current 30-year reserve life as well as to increase throughput above the initial capacity of 127,500 t per day,” says Anglo American Chief Executive Mark Cutifani. First production of copper is expected in 2022, ramping up to full production in 2023. During the first 10 years of full production Quellaveco is expected to produce approximately 300,000 t per year.

“While Peru will be a new operating geography for us, we’ve been preparing the ground for many years — both literally and figuratively — developing strong relationships with local communities, government authorities and regulators along the way,” the company says on its website. Anglo American board members approved development of the project in July 2018. That same month, partner Mitsubishi Corporation increased its interest in the project to 40%. The company has secured the licenses and permits to move forward with Quellaveco and development has commenced. “After several years of extensive preparatory work, we are very pleased to develop the project together with our partner Mitsubishi,” said Cutifani.

Read more: Anglo Quellaveco to operate Cat fleet teaming 794AC trucks with both rope & hydraulic shovels

Looking into the factory of the future

Tomorrow’s manufacturing facility will still use everything from hydraulics to electrics, and automation will provide more flexibility than ever.

The Multi-Product Line brings together hydraulic power units with embedded sensor technology to provide predictive indicators.

By now, anyone involved in the industrial sector has probably heard the term, “factory of the future.” Those four words bring to mind an industrial utopia defined by increased productivity with no downtime, round-the-clock productivity, previously untapped levels of customization, improved safety capabilities — all boiling down to more profitable production processes.

There are a number of companies offering systems, software, and other tools to help achieve these goals. One of these companies is Bosch Rexroth.

At the heart of the Bosch Rexroth approach is the automation and IoT software that could turn such a vision a reality. Dr. Henier Lang, SVP of Automation & Electrification Solutions at Bosch Rexroth defines the factory of the future this way: “Full flexibility, individuality and scalability. This is exactly what the factory of the future is about.”

The company is heavily involved in bringing these future capabilities into the present with its portfolio of automation solutions. But as automation takes up most of the factory of the future’s attention, technology such as hydraulic components, linear motion and assembly systems can easily fall out of view. Years of multi-technology expertise has made it clear that full flexibility, individuality and scalability must remain a reality.

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Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Analysis and Forecast 2019 to 2025

Los Angeles, United State: QY Research has published a latest and most trending report on Aircraft Hydraulic System Market offers detailed value chain assessment, comprehensive study on market dynamics including drivers, restraints and opportunities, recent trends, and industry performance analysis. Furthermore, it digs deep into critical aspects of key subjects such as market competition, regional growth, and market segmentation so that readers could gain sound understanding of the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market.

The following Companies as the Key Players in the Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Research Report are: United Technologies Corporation, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Safran S.A., Eaton Corporation PLC, Liebherr-International AG, Woodward, Inc., Triumph Group, Inc., Moog Inc., Arkwin Industries Inc., Beaver Aerospace & Defense,

The competitive analysis included in the report helps readers to become aware of unique characteristics of the vendor landscape and crucial factors impacting the market competition. It is a very important tool that players need to have in their arsenal for cementing a position of strength in the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market.

Key Questions Answered by the Report-

  • Which are the top players of the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market? What are their individual shares?
  • How will the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market perform in the coming years? What is its current status?
  • What are the key factors driving the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market?
  • What opportunities will the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market provide in future?
  • Which product/application will secure the lion’s share of the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market?
  • What is the structure of the global Aircraft Hydraulic System market?

Read more: Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Analysis and Forecast 2019 to 2025

Roadtec boosts power on cold planer and milling machine

Roadtec has equipped its RX-700 cold planer and its RX-900 milling machine with new engine options.

The new model of Roadtec’s RX-700 features the increased power of an 800 hp Tier 4 Final Caterpillar engine.

The new Tier 4 Final engine does not require diesel exhaust fluid as a component of the after-treatment system, which reduces operating costs typically required at this emission standard.

Thanks to the increase in power, the updated half-lane cold planer provides higher production and reliability.

“The increased horsepower delivers even more production. We give customers what they need: a reliable and efficient cold planer that helps them complete jobs on time and with success,” said Kyle Hammon, Roadtec’s product manager for mills, stabilizers and brooms.

The RX-700 cuts up to 35 cm deep with standard widths of 2, 2.2, 2.5 and 3.2 metres.

As well, the cutter housing includes angled moldboards, which prevent material from accumulating around the drum, resulting in less wear. Furthermore, track pads are bolted on, which makes changing pads fast, saving time and money.

To achieve a stronger and lighter frame, Roadtec used A656 Grade 80 steel when building the RX 700, which is twice as strong as common mild steel.

A 60-degree conveyor swing, which is greater than the traditional 40-degree swing, allows easy feeding of a truck in an adjacent lane or around a tight bend. A folding secondary conveyor is also available to aid in transport and loading.

Automated elevation controls
The Automated Control of Elevation (ACE) system automates machine elevation through a combination of grade and slope sensors. The operator and ground crew may easily make changes to the grade and slope parameters, on the job and in real time.

Roadtec RX-900
Roadtec’s RX-900e asphalt milling machine has been upgraded to a 1,055 hp Tier 4 Final Caterpillar engine. The new Tier 4 Final engine does not require diesel exhaust fluid as a component of the after-treatment system, reducing the operation costs typically required. The upgraded power and heavy-duty fabrication make the RX-900 ideal for half-lane and full-lane milling.

Read more: Roadtec boosts power on cold planer and milling machine

Industrial Motors: How to Get More Bang for Your Buck

The recent push to make everything smart or connected has led to some interesting evolutions in manufacturing. Application and infrastructure divided the use of electromechanical and fluid power. However, with the development of high-speed controls, quick-response motors, and improved software, variable-speed electric drives are finding their way into power hydraulic pumps.

Previously these technologies were difficult to combine. Over the last few years there have been more motor-pump combinations able to provide power and responsiveness to match systems controlled by electrohydraulic valves or a variable-displacement pump. The result is not only new features and control, but also a reduction in energy consumption.

While smart fluid systems sound new, they have been around for years. What is changing is how smarter they are becoming. It was inevitable with advancing technology, or perhaps the skills gap in the fluid power community, but an intelligent innovation has been triggered by blending electromechanical with hydraulic and/or pneumatic. These new solutions tend to be easy to program and control in a turnkey product. Moving forward, these variable-drive, electromechanical hydraulic, smart, all-in-one solutions might become the new norm.

The Kyntronics Smart Hydraulic Actuator is a variable-speed electric motor driving the hydraulic pump, servo-valve, cylinder, and support components all in one assembly. All you need to provide is electrical power and I/O signals. This solution controls position, force, and speed in applications requiring 500 lb (2,225N) to more than 100,000 lb (445 kN) of force with strokes up to 120 in. (3,048 mm).

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Rotary Vane Pump Offers High Vapor Capacity for Aggressive Gases

Pascal 2021 HW two-stage rotary vane pump is said to offer the highest vapor capacity in its class, making it suitable for working with aggressive gases in freeze drying and medical sterilization applications. An optimized design and gas ballast system allows the pumping of large volumes of vapor without condensation inside the pump. This prevents accumulation of fluid that would adversely affect the service life of the pump and the pump oil. The pump is constructed of materials that tolerate aggressive chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide. The pump is ready to deliver vapor in just a few minutes due to a customized temperature management system. Its safety device impedes the water from entering into functional sections of the pump if the steam capacity is inadvertently exceeded. Its compact design enables easy installation into OEM and custom equipment.

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Alleviating Firing System Safety Risks And Costs

The need to streamline perforating operations while alleviating the risk of misfires, assembly and downhole time, labor and maintenance costs is a key component to hydraulic fracturing operations, particularly when completing long horizontal wellbores in unconventional shale plays. DynaEnergetics’ DynaStage perforating system incorporates technology in the addressable firing system and an improved mechanical design to help improve overall plug-andperf (PNP) operations. It optimizes perforating operations with fully assembled and ready-to-shoot gun modules delivered to the base or well site.

The fully disposable, maintenance-free system is made more robust by eliminating traditional approaches to selective perforating, detonators, gun hardware and accessory equipment and, with its additional safety features, allows other wellsite operations to run in conjunction with the perforation process.

System features

The system includes intrinsically safe, integrated switch-detonators, preassembled guns with shaped charges and a composite plug, a firing panel, and a surface tester. Commercialized in 2016, the DynaStage system has targeted two areas to improve efficiency and reduce costs.

The first is safety, for which the system has a simple design that eliminates the risk of inadvertent detonation from stray current or voltage. Surface explosive handling and arming can be conducted in less time and in conjunction with other operations. The design eliminates the need to hold the gun system at shallow subsurface depth during simultaneous operations. Both factors reduce wait times at the well site.

The second targeted area is reliability. The design of the electronic system and simplification of the mechanical field assembly process help to reduce the number of misruns, which increases efficiency and lowers the cost of completions.

Improved assembly at surface

During the assembly of conventional perforating systems, including mechanical component assembly, arming the system and connecting the gun string to the wireline, there is a risk that resistorized detonators can be initiated with radio frequency energy, stray current or stray voltage on the surface. These traditional detonators can contribute to an increased risk of injury and destruction when connecting the detonator to the gun string and wireline truck.

Read more: Alleviating Firing System Safety Risks And Costs

Improve your haul cycles

Haul road design, construction, and maintenance have a huge impact on truck haulage cycle efficiency, costs, and production. Design factors, including road materials, grades, curve designs, and traffic layout, play critical rolls in efficient truck haulage. But proper maintenance of roads — to ensure smooth surface conditions, low rolling resistance, and consistent grades — is equally important to achieving lowest cost per ton of material hauled.

As an example of the importance of haul road design and maintenance, a 5-percent increase in rolling resistance can result in as much as a 10-percent decrease in production and 35-percent increase in production cost. Though 5-percent rolling resistance doesn’t sound like much, it is equivalent to about 2 inches of tire penetration.

Good haul road design, construction, and maintenance reduce fuel burn, help minimize tire heating and damage, and reduce wear on truck components. The results are lower operating and maintenance costs and less downtime.

Motor graders play critical role

Motor graders are not only critical to maintaining haul roads, but also to building haul roads to the right specifications, which, in turn, enables the roads to resist damage and provide optimum hauling conditions for longer periods.

Motor graders are the best grading machines for ensuring that cross slopes and cross falls are built to specifications. Building to spec helps ensure that roads drain water efficiently, which reduces the formation of potholes and washboards, and reduces the need for frequent haul road maintenance.

Motor graders are also the best machines for building superelevated curves. Such curves help trucks maintain proper weight distribution and constant speed, reducing the frequency of transmission gear shifts and braking for less wear on truck components.

After roads are built, the motor grader is the most efficient tool to keep them in good condition. Motor graders provide smooth roads, constant grades, and reduced rolling resistance. They also can maintain safety berms and drainage ditches, and, with their fast travel speeds, graders can be dispatched to quickly clean up rock spillage from haul trucks.

Read more: Improve your haul cycles