The Four Pillars of Hydraulic Machine Efficiency

Most readers of this column are well aware that the viscosity of a hydrocarbon-based hydraulic fluid is inversely proportional to temperature. As temperature increases, fluid viscosity decreases and vice versa. This is not an ideal situation for several reasons. In fact, the ideal hydraulic fluid would have a viscosity index (the change in a fluid’s viscosity relative to temperature) represented by a horizontal line intercepting the Y axis at 25 centiStokes.

This temperature-viscosity shows that an ideal hydraulic fluid would exhibit no change in viscosity regardless of temperature.

Unfortunately, no such fluid exists for hydraulic machine efficiency and longevity. And it’s unlikely such a fluid will be developed in my lifetime. But if such a fluid was developed and patented, its creator would hold the key to a gold mine. For now, we have multi-grade hydraulic oil. These fluids have a high viscosity index, so their viscosity is less sensitive to changes in temperature than a monograde oil.

Unintended Consequences
Fluid viscosity is one of the factors that determines whether full-film lubrication is achieved and maintained. If load and surface speed remain constant, but elevated operating temperature causes viscosity to fall below that required to maintain a hydrodynamic film, boundary lubrication occurs; this creates creating the possibility of friction and adhesive wear.

Read more: The Four Pillars of Hydraulic Machine Efficiency

 

How to get the most out of your hydraulics system

Not only do hydraulics now feature higher quality components for improved lifting capacity and breakout forces, but they also make more versatile machines. That versatility starts with attachments on how to get the most out of your hydraulics system.

Hydraulics are the heart and soul of your machine. Over the last several years, hydraulics have become more sophisticated with better performance through larger pumps and higher pressures. And some machines maintain performance with less horsepower due to Tier 4 emission regulations.

A performance boost
Operators can now handle a wide range of tasks with a single machine, thanks to higher hydraulic performance. The capacity to connect a multitude of attachments continues to advance in the industry with stronger hydraulics, as well as attachment-friendly designs and features.

Improvement — even in the last five years — is evident. For example, the auxiliary hydraulics in Takeuchi’s larger excavators were recently improved with the addition of dual hydraulic circuits. Now, attachments, such as a hydraulic breaker, can mount on the excavator without detaching hydraulic lines.

The right flow
Multiple attachment presets on Takeuchi excavators can dial in proper flow adjustments for optimal attachment performance from the comfort of the operator’s station multi-informational display.

The biggest item to keep in mind when purchasing an attachment to pair with your machine is the recommended flow requirements.

Avoid making mistakes like operating the machine at full throttle as it could surpass the maximum settings of the attachment. Over time, excessive flow wears and damages the attachment, seals, components and hoses.

Read more: How to get the most out of your hydraulics system

Stage Set for Hybrid Construction Equipment to Go Mainstream 

Electrification is a predominant trend in the construction equipment industry. The corresponding introduction of software allows machines to gain efficiency.

“With electrification, we can do more with the software,” says Scott Young, director of electromobility, Volvo Construction Equipment. “We can tailor for the customers’ application, site or environment so the machine is purpose built for what they are doing. We are starting to see electrification of subsystems in the machines starting to come onto the market.” This allows decoupling of systems, so that systems such as the hydraulics will not be dependent on engine speed.

Future use cases of electrified machines will depend on the application. “We see segments where you have fully electric machines, machines connected to the grid and hybrid machines,” Young comments.

Hybrids offer many opportunities. “As we hybridize, we can downsize engines and recuperate energy, leading to fuel savings and reduced emissions,” Young points out.

Hybrid construction equipment technology currently entering the market is predominately diesel/electric. “Technically, the word hybrid means two sources of energy,” says John Chesterman, product marketing manager – production class four-wheel-drive loaders, John Deere. “The key is we can recover energy.”

Drivers Behind Adoption
Research on hybrid construction equipment began in the late 1990s and became commercially available in 2003 when Hitachi launched a wheel loader that utilized a series hybrid powertrain. Since then, many OEMs have launched various hybrid technologies that range from series and parallel diesel/electric hybrids to plug-in hybrids and hydraulic hybrids, and even flywheels.

To date, the adoption rate in the U.S. has been fairly slow. It is very dependent upon segment, application and the legislation and regulation. It is advancing more rapidly in Europe and in other parts of the world because certain cities are targeting low-emissions zones or setting future goals of zero emissions.

Read more: Stage Set for Hybrid Construction Equipment to Go Mainstream 

Global Hydraulic Power Unit Market 2018-2023

Global Hydraulic Power Unit Market 2018-2023 is the main driving components of hydraulic system. It is mainly used as the fuel supply part. It is through an external piping system connected with several hydraulic cylinders. Aim to control the operation of multiple sets of valves. The hydraulic power unit is a very important part of industrial hydraulic system.

The Global Hydraulic Power Unit market is estimated to reach XXX billion in 2016-2022. The target of report is to outline, segment, and project the market on the basis of type, application, and region, and to explain the content about the factors influencing market sprightly, stance, pecuniary, technology and market entry etc.

This interrogation answers several queries for Stakeholders, primarily which market segments they should focus upon thro the next five years to prioritize their efforts and investments.

Primary sources are mainly industry trade specialists of Hydraulic Power Unit market from core and related industries, and suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, service suppliers, and organizations related to all segments of the industry’s supply chain.

The report provides a basic overview of the Hydraulic Power Unit industry including exposition, grouping, appeal and trade chain structure. And development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and value structures. Then, the interrogation report enhanced on worldwide key industry manufacturers with data such as company profiles, product revenue and specifications, trade sales volume, industry share by Type and contact information. What’s additional, the Hydraulic Power Unit industry development trends and promoting channels are analyzed.

The interrogation report Hydraulic Power Unit market includes epic knowledge from 2012 to 2017 and forecasts till 2022 that makes the reports an useful resources for industry executives, marketing, sales and Hydraulic Power Unit product managers, trade consultants, analysts, and others yearning for key industry data in promptly accessible documents with clearly given tables and graphs.

The report Hydraulic Power Unit will make elaborated analysis mainly on above questions and in-depth research on the development environment, market size, development trend, operation scenario and future development trend of Hydraulic Power Unit on the premise of stating current situation of the industry in 2018 so as to make comprehensive organization and judgment on the competition situation and development trend of Hydraulic Power Unit Market and assist manufacturers and investment organization to higher grasp the event course of Hydraulic Power Unit Market.

Read more: Global Hydraulic Power Unit Market 2018-2023

 

Applying Thermostatic Principles in Impulse Testing of Hydraulic Hose

A multitude of thermostatic principles specifications can be selected when certifying hoses and other hydraulic components—from a simple proof set up to the most sophisticated test requirements. Each segment or product has its own set of standards and these norms are constantly under either revision, implementation or being created when new material or innovative applications become a reality.

The widespread use of a product usually requires a set of standards to accompany it. Automotive, aerospace, industrial hydraulics, and most recently CNG applications, can be listed as some of the more complex hose tests. Traditional testing concepts must give away for more effective testing procedures, as well as the fact that other testing parameters are also to be measured. This is especially true when the complexity of a thermostatic impulse testing of hydraulic hoses is required.

When a thermostatic environment is combined with an Impulse Test, new testing parameters have to be measured and a new set of variables must to be taken into the equation. Another factor that has to be deeply analyzed is how the specs define the test procedure. Sometimes even the specs are not as forthcoming as one would wish and the interpretation of which may require further investigation.

There are some international standards largely covering impulse test stand with a thermostatic chamber. For instance, in aerospace, the SAE standards, AS series has some publications dedicated to testing of coupling, fittings, hoses, and tubing assemblies. Besides demanding impulse tests, some of these specs require ambient temperatures either below-zero or well above chamber temperature. The test equipment has to simulate the environment in which an airplane is exposed. There are also National Aerospace Standards, which require temperatures below 0°C when running pressure cycles.

Read more: Applying Thermostatic Principles in Impulse Testing of Hydraulic Hose

Minimize Particle Contamination to Maximize Hydraulic System Performance, Reliability 

Many industries rely heavily on vehicles and equipment that operate hydraulic systems to get work done. Construction, mining, agriculture, waste management — while these sectors may be very different, there is one issue they share: the risk of costly unplanned downtime due to equipment failure related to hydraulic systems.

Proper maintenance to minimize particle contamination of hydraulic systems is critical to reducing that risk, and avoiding particle contamination in lubrication is a key factor. A major challenge in keeping hydraulic systems running smoothly is that clearances between components are very tight, usually measured in microns. That means that relatively tiny particles in the lubricant, even those invisible to the naked eye, can cause enormous damage and impair hydraulic performance. Studies show that particle contamination is the number-one cause of lubricant-related hydraulic equipment failure, accounting for an estimated 82% of component wear.

Compounding the challenge is that hydraulic systems are getting more complex with tighter clearances, higher pressures and temperatures. Pumps, modular directional control valves and hydraulic cylinders all suffer the impact of particle contamination. Seals and hoses are especially vulnerable to abrasive wear that leaks and failures.

Primary cause for hydraulic system failure
The causes of contamination are varied for hydraulic systems. The long journey from the plant to the hydraulic storage tank presents many opportunities for particles to infiltrate the oil. Breathers on tanks, if not properly fitted, may be ingesting particulate matter into the system. Loose or dirty seals may be allowing contaminants in. If components are not cleaned and flushed properly when they are rebuilt, that too can introduce contamination.

To reduce the risk of particle contamination, operators need to exercise caution at every stage at which the lubricant is exposed to air. Storage tanks and reservoirs must be kept clean and sealed and filtration systems kept in good working order.

The best solution, however, is prevention, starting with the oil itself. Use a hydraulic lubricant that meets or exceeds the manufacturer’s ISO specifications for cleanliness. Verify with the lubricant supplier that each delivery is certified to the OEM ISO Cleanliness code. Controlling fluid contamination on the initial fill could save as much as 90% of the cost to remove it later, according to Noria, the worldwide leader in providing lubrication consulting services and training.

It all comes down to the bottom line. Minimizing particle contamination in hydraulic systems helps maximize performance today and extend the useful life of equipment into tomorrow, delivering a better return on investment over the long haul.

Read more: Minimize Particle Contamination to Maximize Hydraulic System Performance, Reliability 

Hydraulic filtration: Three things to look for 

For fleets, the difference between profit and loss often depends on keeping operating costs low by making sure all systems within your vehicles are delivering peak performance. One important system that is sometimes overlooked is a truck’s hydraulic system. Quality, reliable hydraulic filtration is vital to reducing wear, guarding against system failure and achieving maximum equipment uptime and performance.

In general, minimizing maintenance costs requires contaminant control practices that identify specific problems and provide guidance in choosing the most efficient and dependable filtration solution. Removing particles that are large enough to be harmful to vehicle systems prevents damage and allows the longest possible filter service life.

According to Servo Kinetics, a manufacturer of hydraulic pumps, fluid contamination contributes to 90% to 95% of all hydraulic system failures. If not controlled, contaminants and particles that are too small to be seen with the naked eye can reduce hydraulic system efficiency.

For example, contaminants that become trapped or stuck in equipment clearances can cause excessive wear and internal leakage of fluid. Less fluid contained within the pump, motor or cylinder will decrease efficiency and ultimately cause hydraulic system failure.

Fluid contamination also decreases the ability of valves to control flow and pressure accurately while wasting horsepower and generating excess heat. Sticking parts due to sludge or silting and the collection of fine particles in critical areas will impair proper hydraulic system operation.

Read more: Hydraulic filtration: Three things to look for 

Avoiding Problems in Electrohydraulic Control Systems Design

The key to unlocking the benefits of electrohydraulic control systems design is understanding system requirements, selecting the proper system components, sizing them appropriately, and correctly programming and tuning the motion controller for optimal performance.

Selecting and Sizing Cylinders
Building a precisely-controllable motion system is all about understanding the concepts of force and natural frequency. For a typical hydraulic motion system, the acceleration and velocity are limited by the available force, not the flow. In addition, the natural frequency of a system determines the maximum acceleration rate that it can achieve under control.

Where mistakes are often made is in cylinder diameter. Cylinder choice is crucial since both the force it can apply and the natural frequency of the system are functions of the cylinder diameter. A common error is to use small diameter cylinders that are capable of moving very quickly under light loads. Unfortunately, under higher loads, the piston in a narrow cylinder provides too little surface area for the hydraulic oil flow to push on to produce the required force.

A small-diameter cylinder acts like a hydraulic spring, resulting in a low natural frequency, especially if the system has a large mass. This can cause oscillation if the motion profile requires quick acceleration, or if the system exhibits stiction (static friction exceeds dynamic friction).

The natural frequency of a system is related to its stiffness. Because fluid is compressible, a fluid power system with a large bore is much stiffer compared than a system using a long, narrow cylinder. Hence, cylinders with larger bores diameters will not compress as much when accelerating and are capable of quicker controlled acceleration and deceleration. As a general rule, in order to be precisely controllable by a standard PID algorithm, the natural frequency of a cylinder acting on a particular load mass should be three to four times greater than the frequency at which the system is commanded to move.

Read more: Avoiding Problems in Electrohydraulic Control Systems Design

Cat 994K wheel loader – more payload, power and productivity

The new Cat 994K wheel loader fills a vital space in the Cat mining load and haul fleet line-up, delivering a 29% increase in payload over its forerunner, the respected 994H.

“Our customers have spoken and now we can offer them Caterpillar’s largest wheel loader, which can be equipped with a high lift linkage that matches it with mining trucks as big as the Cat 794AC,” says Stefan Coetzee, mining product manager at Barloworld Equipment Southern Africa.

Since Caterpillar’s first wheel loader rolled off the line at its facility in Aurora, Illinois, in 1963, Cat wheel loaders have grown into market leaders. Introduced in 1990, the Cat 994 has been the top customer choice in its size class for more than 25 years.

The new 994K builds on this proud tradition, providing Barloworld Equipment mining customers with a machine that is efficiently pass-matched to the 785, 789,793 and 794 mining trucks to provide full payloads in minimum loading times.

“We have sold our first unit to Mota Engil and this machine will be commissioned at a mine in Mozambique in September 2018,” says Coetzee.

“As well as a higher payload, the new Cat 994K wheel loader offers better productivity and lower cost per tonne with the same built-in durability and second life capability as its predecessors. It is the answer to calls from miners across southern Africa for a bigger Cat loader.”

The standard 994K carries 40.8 t per pass, 18% more than the 994H, and the high lift version moves 38.1 t per pass or 20% more.

The 994K loads the 136 t capacity Cat 785 mining truck in four passes; the 181 t Cat 789 truck in five passes in standard or high lift configuration; and the 227 t Cat 793 in six passes, the latter using the high lift configuration. In all cases one less pass is required than with the previous model 994H.

In real world testing by customers, operators commented that loads times were significantly reduced due to torque and digging power, and this after only a few hours’ operation.

Read more: CAT 994K – more payload, power and productivity

 

Hydraulic Feed Controls Market 

Hydraulic feed controls market are used to control fluid pressure, flow, and direction of the element in the hydraulic drive system and hydraulic control system. Any one hydraulic system, regardless of how simple, and can’t be a lack of hydraulic controls. The hydraulic machinery equipment of the same process purpose is used by different combinations of the hydraulic controls. It can form different structures of a variety of hydraulic oil system solutions. Therefore, the hydraulic control is the most varieties and specifications, the most widely used, the most active part in the hydraulic technology.

Hydraulic Feed Controls Market: Dynamics

The hydraulic feed controls Market is driven by the high demand of these valves in the marine industry where the control of fluid is of utmost importance to run the ships and boats. Also, the major sector driving the market is the industrial sector which contributes to the economy of a region. This sector needs this market in a very high demand to drive the industry. The logistics and transportation industry, a vigorous gear in the manufacturing sector supply chain process, has also been promoted by the growth in the industrial bustle.

The subsequent growth and demand for the material handling apparatus including scissor lifts, stackers, dock levelers, and forklifts united with growing in warehouse offerings and services, has been contributory in encouraging demand and growth for the hydraulic module, such as pistons and cylinders. The usage of hydraulic excavators has been an up surge in construction services, a trend that has been further marked in developing marketplace. Moreover, these hydraulic excavators are very effective and efficient and save more time for the mining industry. Heavy loads can be easily lifted using these excavators and give a growth to the hydraulic feeds control market.

Read more: Hydraulic Feed Controls Market