CAT 994K – more payload, power and productivity

The new Cat 994K wheel loader fills a vital space in the Cat mining load and haul fleet line-up, delivering a 29% increase in payload over its forerunner, the respected 994H.

“Our customers have spoken and now we can offer them Caterpillar’s largest wheel loader, which can be equipped with a high lift linkage that matches it with mining trucks as big as the Cat 794AC,” says Stefan Coetzee, mining product manager at Barloworld Equipment Southern Africa.

Since Caterpillar’s first wheel loader rolled off the line at its facility in Aurora, Illinois, in 1963, Cat wheel loaders have grown into market leaders. Introduced in 1990, the Cat 994 has been the top customer choice in its size class for more than 25 years.

The new 994K builds on this proud tradition, providing Barloworld Equipment mining customers with a machine that is efficiently pass-matched to the 785, 789,793 and 794 mining trucks to provide full payloads in minimum loading times.

“We have sold our first unit to Mota Engil and this machine will be commissioned at a mine in Mozambique in September 2018,” says Coetzee.

“As well as a higher payload, the new Cat 994K wheel loader offers better productivity and lower cost per tonne with the same built-in durability and second life capability as its predecessors. It is the answer to calls from miners across southern Africa for a bigger Cat loader.”

The standard 994K carries 40.8 t per pass, 18% more than the 994H, and the high lift version moves 38.1 t per pass or 20% more.

The 994K loads the 136 t capacity Cat 785 mining truck in four passes; the 181 t Cat 789 truck in five passes in standard or high lift configuration; and the 227 t Cat 793 in six passes, the latter using the high lift configuration. In all cases one less pass is required than with the previous model 994H.

In real world testing by customers, operators commented that loads times were significantly reduced due to torque and digging power, and this after only a few hours’ operation.

Read more: CAT 994K – more payload, power and productivity


Hydraulic Feed Controls Market 

Hydraulic feed controls are used to control fluid pressure, flow, and direction of the element in the hydraulic drive system and hydraulic control system. Any one hydraulic system, regardless of how simple, and can’t be a lack of hydraulic controls. The hydraulic machinery equipment of the same process purpose is used by different combinations of the hydraulic controls. It can form different structures of a variety of hydraulic oil system solutions. Therefore, the hydraulic control is the most varieties and specifications, the most widely used, the most active part in the hydraulic technology.

Hydraulic Feed Controls Market: Dynamics

The hydraulic feed controls Market is driven by the high demand of these valves in the marine industry where the control of fluid is of utmost importance to run the ships and boats. Also, the major sector driving the market is the industrial sector which contributes to the economy of a region. This sector needs this market in a very high demand to drive the industry. The logistics and transportation industry, a vigorous gear in the manufacturing sector supply chain process, has also been promoted by the growth in the industrial bustle.

The subsequent growth and demand for the material handling apparatus including scissor lifts, stackers, dock levelers, and forklifts united with growing in warehouse offerings and services, has been contributory in encouraging demand and growth for the hydraulic module, such as pistons and cylinders. The usage of hydraulic excavators has been an up surge in construction services, a trend that has been further marked in developing marketplace. Moreover, these hydraulic excavators are very effective and efficient and save more time for the mining industry. Heavy loads can be easily lifted using these excavators and give a growth to the hydraulic feeds control market.

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Safety Screens and the ROB Factor 

Safety screens are often referred to as last-chance filters, but they are not conventional filters and not rated as such. They offer a different type of protection from what hydraulic filters do. Safety screens typically trap contaminants 100 µm and larger in size.

System designers specify safety screens to catch large particles before they reach a critical component, such as a servovalve control orifice, or relief valve. A single large particle can cause sudden failure, possibly with catastrophic effects. Although filters maintain fluid cleanliness during operation, large particles (usually manufacturing debris in new systems or wear debris in older systems) require a different approach. Typical examples include machining chips, weld flash, seal fragments, wear particles, and debris from failing components. Here, safety screens provide an added level of protection.

Beta ratings—familiar to designers who specify conventional filters—do not apply to this type of device. And because most screens have holes larger than 100 µm, contamination specifications, such as ISO 4406, are useless. Unfortunately, no standard methods exist to compare the performance of one safety screen to another. As a result, hydraulic system designers often must resort to costly testing programs or haphazard trial-and-error methods to select the proper screen.

To provide a means of comparing the effectiveness of screens, The Lee Company developed the Resistance to Blockage (ROB) factor. The ROB factor is calculated from a volume of fluid with known contamination required to block a screen. MIL-STD 1246, which deals with large particle contamination, was chosen as the baseline for comparison. Using MIL-STD 1246Class 200 fluid, the ROB factor is defined as:

Read more: Safety Screens and the ROB Factor 

Hydraulic Cylinder Market to Witness Comprehensive Growth by 2025

Hydraulic cylinders, also known as hydraulic pumps, are sub-assemblies used in hydraulic power transfer systems. Hydraulic cylinders help transfer power in applications ranging from construction equipment to aviation. These cylinders are an assembly of several components, namely the barrel; cylinder caps and head; piston, which can be double acting or single acting; piston rod; seals; and rings. These cylinders are connected within the hydraulic system to form a continuous hydraulic circuit. Hydraulic cylinders are available in several configurations and functions; each is suited for a particular application. They can also be used to selectively resist the linear motion under heavy loads. Hence, these cylinders can be used in various applications.

Read more: Hydraulic Cylinder Market to Witness Comprehensive Growth by 2025


Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Outlook 2018-2022

Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market 2018 Analysis and Overview by QY Market Research:

QYNewsBiz has recently published the latest report titled Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Report 2018. Aircraft Hydraulic System Market report gives complete global coverage of Aircraft Hydraulic System market data from 2013 to 2018. This Aircraft Hydraulic System report starts with the review of Aircraft Hydraulic System industry chain structure and defines the Aircraft Hydraulic System business growth rate, trend, current status, investigates global Aircraft Hydraulic System market share/volume and forecast up to 2023. Worldwide Aircraft Hydraulic System market report analyzes world’s main regions and additionally provides Aircraft Hydraulic System industry top player’s Profiles/Analysis (United Technologies Corporation, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Safran S.A., Eaton Corporation PLC, Liebherr-International AG, Woodward, Inc., Triumph Group, Inc., Moog Inc., Arkwin Industries Inc., Beaver Aerospace & Defe), regional coverage, product insights, Aircraft Hydraulic System product types and product application insights.

Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market esteemed at XX million USD in last year(2017) and Aircraft Hydraulic System market report expected it to reach XX million USD in forthcoming years during(2018-2023). The Worldwide Aircraft Hydraulic System Market volume is predicted to boost a spectacular growth at XXX% of CAGR during the forecast duration. The years considered to anticipate the market size of Aircraft Hydraulic System are Base Year: 2017, Estimated Year: 2018, History Period/Year(last 5 years Historical data): 2013-2017, and Forecast Period/Year 2018 to 2023.

Top Manufacturers/Companies Included in Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Report are: United Technologies Corporation, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Safran S.A., Eaton Corporation PLC, Liebherr-International AG, Woodward, Inc., Triumph Group, Inc., Moog Inc., Arkwin Industries Inc., Beaver Aerospace & Defe.

Read more: Global Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Outlook 2018-2022

VFO Simplifies Circuits, Improves Reliability 

Hydraulic system layouts commonly used in mobile equipment are either based on open-center valve technology coupled with fixed displacement pumps or load-sensing technology normally coupled with a variable-displacement pump, although sometimes a fixed-displacement pump is used.

Both solutions have different merits. For example, the open-center system is simple, robust, cost-effective, and provides a good operator feel (smooth operation and load-dependent flow are helpful, especially in digging operations). On the other hand, load-sensing technology provides better energy efficiency—especially when coupled with variable pumps—and multifunctional control.

What Is VFO?
Variable Flow Open-center is an innovative concept where a variable-displacement pump is controlled by an open-center type valve. Therefore, VFO combines several advantages of the existing technologies: the simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and smooth operation of the open-center valve, together with the energy efficiency of piston pumps.

VFO technology can be applied to any valve control type: manual, hydraulic pilot, or electrohydraulic. Furthermore, it can easily be combined with any load-sensing (post- or pre-compensated) valves, as well as CPU (constant pressure unloaded) valves

Read more: VFO Simplifies Circuits, Improves Reliability 

The John Deere 345G LC: shorter swing, greater power

John Deere has equipped its new 345G LC reduced tail swing excavator with a third hydraulic pump to improve the machine’s cycle time.

The excavator is a new option for John Deere’s 33 to 40 tonne size class, providing customers with a larger machine with increased lift capacity, more reach, deeper dig depth and greater breakout forces compared to the 245G LC.

According to John Deere, the excavator is ideal for work in road building, underground, building, landscaping and site development applications. The 345G LC began shipping to dealerships in May.

“As infrastructure projects across North America increase, there’s a desire for larger, more powerful reduced tail swing excavators to traverse tight job sites,” said Jonathan Spendlove, John Deere’s excavator product marketing manager. “The ability for our customers to swing a machine and not have the counterweight extend into an additional lane of traffic or bump into a tree is an equipment trait they are considering when looking at options like the 345G LC.”

Quick swing

With three hydraulic pumps, the excavator delivers 681 litres of flow per minute, which is 114 litres more than the larger 350G LC excavator.
“There’s lots of flow, so there’s lots of speed. It’s a very fast and productive excavator,” said Alex Anhalt, a John Deere product consultant for excavators.

While digging with the 345G, all three pumps deliver oil to the front end. When the operator is ready to swing, the third pump shifts to provide full flow immediately.

“Once you get a full bucket, and you’re at high pressure, pump three just waits. It doesn’t provide oil to the boom or stick anymore. It waits for you to swing,” Anhalt said.

The advantage over an excavator with two hydraulic pumps, according to Anhalt, is an extremely quick return to digging after dumping a load.

“You’ll dig about the same. But with the three-pump system, you’ll swing over and dump, and be back to the hole at about the same time as when the (two-pump machine) is dumping. The swing acceleration is extremely fast.”

Electronic hydraulic control

The three-pump hydraulic system also provides greater flow for attachments. An optional, factory-installed auxiliary hydraulic package enables the excavator to provide extra hydraulic flow to power larger attachments, like couplers or hammers.
As well, hydraulic pressure and flow for attachments may be set electronically from inside the cab.

“All you have to do is select the workload in the monitor and it will be set up to go right out of the box,” Anhalt said. “This is a true Swiss army knife. It’s fast and it can do anything or go anywhere.”

The electronic adjustment of hydraulics also allows the operator to program up to 12 attachment settings into the machine. Anhalt explained previous machines would require about 20 minutes of time to manually adjust hydraulic pressure and flow.

Read more: The John Deere 345G LC: shorter swing, greater power

Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Segmentation and Analysis by Recent Trends, Development and Growth by Regions to 2022

The Aircraft Hydraulic System Market report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, Aircraft Hydraulic System Industry by applications and industry chain structure. In this introductory section, the Aircraft Hydraulic System Market research report incorporates analysis of definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. Besides this, the report also consists of development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

Global Aircraft Hydraulic System market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Aircraft Hydraulic System sales volume, Price (USD/Unit), revenue (Million USD), Players/Suppliers Profiles and Sales Data, Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including:  United Technologies Corporation, Parker Hannifin Corporation, Safran S.A., Eaton Corporation PLC, Liebherr-International AG, Woodward; Inc., Triumph Group; Inc., Moog Inc., Arkwin Industries Inc., Beaver Aerospace and Defense

Read more: Aircraft Hydraulic System Market Segmentation and Analysis by Recent Trends, Development and Growth by Regions to 2022

Take on the Pressure for Machine Control 

Pressure control valves assist hydraulic systems in many ways—from keeping system pressures below a desired limit to maintaining a set pressure in circuits. The most widely used valves for controlling pressure include relief, reducing, sequence, and counterbalance valves.

Relief Valves

Most hydraulic systems are designed to operate within a preset pressure range. This range is a function of the forces the actuators in the system must generate to do the required work. Without controlling or limiting these forces, the hydraulic components (and expensive equipment) could be damaged. Relief valves prevent this hazard. They are the safeguards that limit maximum pressure in a system by diverting excess fluid when pressures become too high.

The pressure at which a relief valve first opens to allow fluid to flow through is known as cracking pressure. When the valve is bypassing its full rated flow, it is in a state of full-flow pressure. The difference between full-flow and cracking pressures is sometimes known as the pressure regulation characteristic, or pressure override.

Sometimes this pressure override is not objectionable. However, it can be a disadvantage if it wastes power (because of the fluid lost through the valve before reaching the maximum setting). This can further permit maximum system pressure to exceed the ratings of other components.

Relief valves come in two varieties: direct acting and pilot operated. Direct-acting valves consist of a poppet or ball (poppet will be used for simplicity of discussion), held exposed to system pressure on one side and opposed by a spring of preset force on the other. In a fixed, non-adjustable, normally closed relief valve (Fig. 1), the force exerted by the compression spring exceeds the force exerted by system pressure acting on the poppet. The spring holds the poppet tightly seated. A reservoir port on the spring side of the valve returns leakage fluid to tank.

Read more: Take on the Pressure for Machine Control 

How to Create a Linearized Math Model of a Hydraulic Motor

The most sensible way to design a motion-control system is to use the stated performance requirements as the design goals, and to do so at the very outset of the design process. The techniques are analytical in nature, so they require mathematical descriptions of all elements of the system. Only then can synthesis and simulation methods be applied to direct the design process toward the end result without undue trial-and-error techniques. This is where motion control and mathematical models complement and enhance one another.

The nature of the model is dictated as much by the intended use as it is by the nature of the device that is being modeled. Individual modelers’ beliefs and biases have been known to influence models, too. But most would agree that models fall into two broad categories: steady-state and dynamic. Both the fluid power industry and the fluid power educational community are fixated on steady-state performances, not dynamic ones. In keeping with this tradition, I, too, will begin with steady-state models. A hydraulic motor will be modeled and then analyzed through some examples of how the models can be used.

The analytical schematic of the hydraulic motor has three internal leakage paths and one internal friction-windage resistance. However, note in Fig. 1 that output is mechanical power in the form of speed and torque, while the input is hydraulic in the form of pressure and flow. Visualization is eased by imagining the real physical processes that the three leakage resistances represent in, say, a piston motor.

Read more: How to Create a Linearized Math Model of a Hydraulic Motor